Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Effects Of Pregnancy On A Woman s Life Essay

We all experience change and transitions which most of the times are not easy to handle because it is new to us. We tend to feel lost and caught up in misery when faced with unwanted stress or any difficult situation. In some cases, people get consumed with the negativity and get so stressed out resulting to depression. Depression after giving birth or simply postpartum depression according to Nielsen, D. et al (2000) have been known to be prevalent. It affects not just the mother but the baby as well. It steals away happy moments that they should both be enjoying. It prevents a mother from being functional. The sad part is that it prevents the mother from being a mother to her baby. Pregnancy is a gift and at the same time a life changing event. It is a wonderful yet risky and stressful event in a woman’s life. It comes with stress and pressure that only a pregnant woman and mothers can define and understand. It is the time when priorities change not because she wants to but because she needs to. Needless to say it is one of the major sacrifices that a woman can do. It comes hand in hand with changes, pressure and humongous responsibilities. Her responsibility doesn’t stop the moment she gave birth, in fact it is just a start of a new and bigger ones. All these may sometimes overwhelm an unprepared and unsupported woman. It can be really stressful if not handled well and sometimes if a woman has to deal with it all by herself. Most of the time people get over excitedShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of The Abortion1597 Words   |  7 Pagesit illegal for a physician to procure a miscarriage and or for a woman to self induce an abortion. The penalty was life of imprisonment for the person. The law states that it would only be legal is if it was necessary to save the woman s life. In 1938, laws were changed that â€Å"an abortion could be performed in good faith to protect the life and health of the mother, and that no clear distinction could be made between a threat to life and threat to health†. In 1969 laws were introduced to legalizeRead MoreAbortion : An Incorrect Decision1592 Words   |  7 Pagesor small there are many personal effects to think about, especially when it comes to the life of another human. Abortion has become common in the United States, as well as other places. In 2014, 977,000 abortions occurred in the United States alone. Although this number has decreased since 2011 when the numbe r was 1.06 million abortions, it is still too high (U.S.). Women are getting abortions without considering the very real aspect that they are taking a human life, endangering themselves in theRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion1410 Words   |  6 Pageshave rights? Should a woman have the right to abort if she decides she does not want to have a child? Should a father have a say in whether a fetus is aborted or carried to term? There are countless reasons a woman may choose to have an abortion. Abortion is a controversial and emotional topic that sparks a great deal of debate. Hearing facts will assist one in deriving a more knowledgeable stance on the matter. There are several circumstances that may cause a woman to choose to have an abortionRead MoreQuestions On Issues Of Abortion1355 Words   |  6 Pageshas became a big issue in not just the US but in pretty much everywhere else around the globe. To some people it is a sin to do but to others they might have a good reason to go through it but it can be just an easy way out of going through pregnancy and raising a child. Abortion should only be legal under certain circumstances by applying equality amongst the fetus and the mother without giving more rights to either for example if the mother was raped ,while possibly being underage as wellRead MoreDelayed Childbearing Outcomes And Prevention1141 Words   |  5 Pagescan be life threatening if not cared for properly while developing in the womb of the mother. Having more than one infant being carried in a womb can also be life threatening for the mother bearing the infant and for the infant itself. Needless to say, one, two, three or even four infants in a womb simultaneously depicts a high risk in the outcome of a birth, but the infants and the mother are more prone to circumstantial risks when the mother bearing the child is over the age of 35. Woman aged 35Read MoreThe Bed Rest Hoax By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1641 Words   |  7 Pagesa treatment since the 19the century and its effects were seen in writing as early as 1892 in The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. In the article The Bed-Rest Hoax by Alexandra Kleeman she goes to point out how bed rest is negatively affectin g patients who are prescribed it because of inactivity. While Kleeman points out many flaws in why bed-rest should be put to rest many researchers still believe that bed-rest can have astounding effects on pregnant women. Although in Kleeman’s articleRead MoreMy Lady Parts My Jurisdiction1220 Words   |  5 PagesAdrian Lewis Mrs. Chaney English I 2/10/17 My Lady Parts—My Jurisdiction No woman, ever, woke up and thought, all my friends have had an abortion, I need to get pregnant so I can have one, too. If a woman has an unwanted pregnancy, something has failed her, badly. It might be rape [or incest], it might be a broken condom, it might be bad information on what prevents pregnancy. Or maybe the story about how she had too much to drink and instead of waking up to a hangover, like ever male in historyRead MoreA Research Study On Pre Eclampsia1556 Words   |  7 PagesPre-eclampsia is a serious life-threatening condition during pregnancy that causes hypertension, swelling, and death in the pregnant woman and fetus. Numerous studies have been conducted in the last thirty years that have proven that the reduced use of sodium has in fact, increased a pregnant woman’s chances of developing this disease even though, it has been thought that reducing sodium would actually help the mother. This has caused Dr. Brewer to develop â€Å" The Dr. Brewer Pregnancy Diet† which actuallyRead MoreThe Psychological And Mental Effects Of Fertility1086 Words   |  5 Pagespsychological impact on the relationship. The psychological and mental effects of fertility are present in both men and women, but there are options to help a couple get through it. Infertility describes the reproductive disease that causes a reduced potential for a man or woman to conceive or the failure of a woman to carry a child to term. Clinically, infertility is defined as the inability of women and men to achieve pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. This time frameRead MoreAbortion : Choice And Consequences1537 Words   |  7 PagesRoss once said, â€Å"I certainly supported a woman s right to choose, but to my mind the time to choose was before, not after the fact.† Abortion by definition is the expulsion of a fetus from the womb before it is able to survive independently, which is the reason for abortion to be considered an extremely controversial issue, because in this process the life of a human being is terminated. In actuality, the range of women convinced to terminate their pregnancy is significant as many women find themselves

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Celebrating Columbus Day

The second Monday in October is designated in the United States as Columbus Day. This day commemorates Christopher Columbus first sighting of the Americas on October 12, 1492. Columbus Day as a federal holiday, though, was not officially recognized until 1937. Early Commemorations of Columbus The first recorded ceremony commemorating the Italian  explorer, navigator, and colonizer  in America was in 1792. It was  300 years after his famous first voyage in 1492, the first of four voyages he made across the Atlantic with the backing of Spains Catholic monarchs. To honor Columbus, a ceremony was held in New York  City and a monument was dedicated to him in Baltimore. In 1892, a statue of Columbus was raised on New York Citys Columbus Avenue. The same year, replicas of Columbus three ships were displayed at the  Columbian Exposition  held in Chicago. Creating Columbus Day Italian-Americans were key in the creation of Columbus Day. Beginning on October 12, 1866, New York Citys Italian population organized a celebration of the Italian explorers  discovery of America. This annual celebration spread to other cities, and by 1869 there was also  a Columbus Day in San Francisco. In 1905, Colorado became the first state to observe an official Columbus Day. Over time other states followed, until 1937 when President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed every October 12 as Columbus Day. In 1971, the US Congress officially designated the date of the annual federal holiday as the second Monday in October. Current Celebrations Since Columbus Day is a designated federal holiday, the post office, government offices, and many banks are closed. Many cities across America stage parades that day. For example, Baltimore claims to have the Oldest Continuous Marching Parade in America celebrating Columbus Day. Denver held its 101st Columbus Day parade in 2008. New York holds a Columbus Celebration that includes a parade down Fifth Avenue and a mass at St. Patricks Cathedral. In addition, Columbus Day is also celebrated in other parts of the world including some cities in Italy and Spain, along with parts of Canada and Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico has its own public holiday on November 19 celebrating Columbus discovery of the island.   Critics of Columbus Day In 1992, leading up to the 500th anniversary of Columbus sighting of the Americas, many groups voiced their opposition to celebrations honoring Columbus, who  completed four voyages with Spanish crews on Spanish ships across the Atlantic Ocean. On his first voyage to the New World, Columbus arrived in the Caribbean islands. But he mistakenly believed that he had reached East India and that the Taino, the indigenous people he found there, were East Indians. In a later voyage, Columbus captured more than 1,200 Taino and sent them to Europe as slaves. The Taino also suffered at the hands of the Spanish, former crew members on his ships who remained on the islands and used the Taino people as forced laborers, punishing them with torture and death if they resisted. The Europeans also unwittingly passed on their diseases to the Taino, who had no resistance to them. The terrible combination of forced labor and devastating new diseases would wipe out the entire population of Hispaniola in 43 years. Many people cite this tragedy as the reason why Americans should not be celebrating Columbus accomplishments. Individuals and groups continue to speak out against and protest Columbus Day celebrations.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Stand for Pro-Life Stop Abortion Essay - 755 Words

Pro Life â€Å"1.2 million abortions happen per year, which is 3,288 per day, 137 per hour, 9 abortions every 4 minutes, and 1 abortion every 26 seconds† (Largest Grassroots Catholic Pro-Life Organization.). So many kids do not even get a chance in this world. Women just think that it’s the only way out and that they have no other choice. They just convince themselves that it’s the right thing to do. Women need to stop convincing themselves and actually make a stand and start doing the right thing. There are so many other options other than abortion that women do not realize. What they do not know that it is not the only way and it can be very harmful to them and that it is extremely harmful to the baby. When women get an abortion it is†¦show more content†¦Most doctors would say about 22 days after conception the child’s heart begins to circulate its own blood, and the heartbeat can be detected by an ultrasound. Then at just six weeks the child is starting to form its eyelid, mouth, nose, and tongue. The electrical brain activity can be detected at week six or seven. And people have the right to say that is not a human? Also what most mothers do not know is that the fetus can feel the abortion procedure happening. â€Å"If the fetus is beyond 20 weeks of gestation, I would assume that there will be pain caused to the fetus. And I believe it will be severe and excruciating pain.†(Family Research Council.) Along with that women have to also think about the future of the child. Women who decide to get an abortion don’t know and would never know that their child could have been an Olympian, they could have been the president of the United States, and they could have cured cancer! They could have made a difference in this world but they never even got the chance to. A lot of women think that if they have a child they won’t have a good life because they do not have enough for them but that is not true. There are so many people that willing to adopt babies. There is a never ending waiting list of people that can have enough to offer them a good life. â€Å"To be exact 1.5 million people American families want to adopt a child, there is no such thing as an unwantedShow MoreRelatedDemocrats Vs. Republicans 20161324 Words   |  6 Pagesshould vote on the one you think is the lesser of two evils based on them and not a bias opinion. I took the time to find where they stand on t hree topics, immigrants, abortion, and guns. There are many more issues that they stand, I just want to give you a general idea so you can vote when you’re educated on the topic. Here are the candidates and where each individual stands. Hillary Clinton is a democrat. She want to make it so that immigrants can continue staying here, according to this quote IRead MorePro Choice Vs. Abortion1426 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Pro-Choice is an opposing position against the pro-life that completely and clearly advocates that every women in the world has equal rights of having abortion and there will no legal or religious restriction against electing an abortion in routine life. Many of social religious, civil and national federations raised a slogan against abortion and in the support of this opposition all of these communities and people also run Pro-life movement, United States. This movement opposes Pro-choiceRead MoreCivil Court Case Of Roe V. Wade1332 Words   |  6 PagesMean War? Abortion has been one of the most controversial topics of America fought between two sides since the 1800s. It was not until the 1973 Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade, that the two sides that are known today as Pro-Choice and Pro-Life emerged as the names of the people fighting for each of their thoughts and beliefs. Why does any battle, fight, or war start? Well, because two sides cannot get what they each want. One wants freedom of choice and the other wants the baby’s life to matterRead MorePro Life Or Pro Choice1291 Words   |  6 PagesPro Life or Pro Choice The restrictions and the debate that surrounds the issue of abortion has changed dramatically throughout the course of history and it continues to change until this very moment. All around the world and in every known society, women have used abortion to control their reproduction, regardless of it’s legality. Abortion used to be exercised freely in the United Sates, up Until all the states started to ban It and place a lot of restrictions on it. They stated that a womanRead MorePro Life And Pro Choice1649 Words   |  7 Pagesthat of abortion. In today’s society you are either a Pro-life or a Pro-choice, there is not a middle ground. Pro-life are individuals who believe abortion is immoral and should be stop for the wellbeing of women and unborn babies. In contrast, the Pro-choice individuals do not necessarily promote abortion, they just believe women should be the ones to make decisions over their bodies and health. Although the two main sides of the abortion de bate have concerns for human life, pro-life activistsRead MorePolitical Ideology Is More Or More An Outline Of A Voters Political Morals And Beliefs922 Words   |  4 Pagesmarriage and the removal of abortion. Other conservative views include believing in individual self-reliance, tradition, laws and morality, low taxes and social affairs. While Liberals largely support justice and equality, and oppose government regulations on civil liberties. Among equality liberals believe in strong government, freedom from government intervention in social conduct. In America liberalism is associated with the Democratic Party, one reason being the stand on abortion. Hillary Clinton beingRead More Solutions to the Abortion Problem in America Essay1462 Words   |  6 Pages Solutions to the Abortion Problem in America Abortion in America is a huge issue that is causing much turmoil between the communities in America. Some people feel this way and some people feel another. I am personally for pro-choice, which means I am against abortion unless it is to save a mothers life due to medical problems. Through research I found that there are many things available that are being done to try and cut the rate of abortion in America and yet I feel that there is stillRead MoreThe Advocacy Groups That Stand For Pro Choice1547 Words   |  7 Pagesprovided abortions and trained other women to do so, without legal prohibitions. There were many different ways they attempted to do this procedure; such as a pennyroyal tea, which according to Thorpe, is toxic at just five grams. They believed that jumping and kicking yourself in the buttocks would also make a women have a miscarriage. Sitting over a pot of hot onions, and using camel saliva, ants, and deer hair was also a popular way to have an abortion back then . In today’s society abortion has becomeRead MoreExploring How Christians Put Their Beliefs About Abortion Into Action762 Words   |  4 PagesBeliefs About Abortion Into Action Abortion is the premature expulsion of the foetus from the womb or an operation to cause it. In Britain abortion is currently a legal procedure which is undertaken by thousands of women each year. The churches have very different views on abortion. The Roman Catholic Church is against abortion no matter what the circumstances are. The Quakers and the Anglican Church are more open to abortion. Though they are against abortion they believeRead MoreMy Lady Parts My Jurisdiction1220 Words   |  5 Pages all my friends have had an abortion, I need to get pregnant so I can have one, too. If a woman has an unwanted pregnancy, something has failed her, badly. It might be rape [or incest], it might be a broken condom, it might be bad information on what prevents pregnancy. Or maybe the story about how she had too much to drink and instead of waking up to a hangover, like ever male in history, she woke up pregnant, said American women, Lauren Telesca. Pro-life or pro-choice? On one hand, people say

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Australian Legislation

Question: Describe about the Australian legislation. Answer: Australian legislation has many rules and regulation to determine its existence in each and every sector. In this problem, the solution is needed to open a seafood restaurant in Sydney. Thus, when the legal attorney provides suggestion for the beginning of a new and fresh business, he/she will suggest the ideas based on Property Law, Sale of Goods and Consumer Protection and the Intellectual law of Australia. As these are the main criteria which are needed to be followed in order to establish the business in Australia. Australian property legislation deals with various kinds of property rights within its each jurisdiction as well as in different states of Australia. Property legislation of Australia is grounded upon all the states by following the principle based on Torrens regarding the registration of the title. This provision also discusses the registration of various entitlements which includes a mortgage of land, which helps in securing loans. Each and every land is under a jurisdiction, and it follows the principals of various land laws implemented on them. There are two types of properties which include Real property and Personal property (Aplin et al. 2013). According to the common law system, we can state that Real property is regarded as property which is immovable property or real estate. Thus, as per the provisions of law, we can state that real properties are regarded to those properties which are subjected to land and the improvement of these lands are done with the help of human efforts. There are various examples which can be granted under the real property that includes ponds, buildings, canals, mines, wells, dams, roads, etc. As per the common law system, it can be said that real properties are those properties which are protected by the means of real action with contrast to the personal property, and in this regard the plaintiff has to resort a different from of action. Real properties can be identified with the help of various legal property descriptions. This description means the marks on the boundaries which are manmade (Whish and Bailey 2015). Such limits include roads, highways, railway tracks, shores of lakes, ridges cr est, etc. The law which explains the various kinds of interest is known as real estate in real properties. These estates are determined with the help of languages of law that includes will, deed, lease, bill of sale, grant of law, etc. by the process which the estate or property was acquired. Estate are distinguished with the help of varying rights of the property which is vested on each and also helps in determining the transferability of the various estate (Badenhorst et al. 2012). The parties who only enjoy the rights of the estate are known as a "tenant." Another most important part of a property is called personal property; personal property is that property which is movable in nature and is not attached to the land (Bently 2014). According to the civil law also it can be stated that personal property is just the opposite of real property, and it includes wildlife, chickens and other small livestock. There are two types of property which include: Tangible personal property- It refers to those properties which can be moved from one place to another easily, and it includes furniture, writings, arts, jewelry, house hold goods, clothing's, etc. Intangible personal property- It refers to those properties which cannot be easily moved, touched or felt, but rather can be represented valuably by securities, assets which are intangible, negotiable instrument, etc (Burrows, 2013). Thus, the suggestion by the Attorney to open a seafood restaurant will be to choose the appropriate property in which the business can be established and be maintained with prosperity and will include real property. It may be in the form of ownership or mortgage (Burrows, 2013). The second most important rules which are to be followed to establish the business will be under the Sale of Goods Act and Consumer Protection Act (Bridge, 2015). This act states about the Consumer Protection which is a law or organization and protects the rights of the consumer and fair trade. This law helps in preventing the customers against fraud as well as unfair trade practices from gaining an advantage over the competitors. According to the provision of law, consumers are regarded to those people who acquire the goods and services as a direct ownership or use rather than reselling of its production and manufacturing. The interest of the consumers can be protected by making the promotion of competition in the market. Consumer protection can be asserted by the non-governmental organization. Consumer rights as stated by UN Consumer Bill Of rights consist of various uses which include safety right, rights of choosing, basic needs and satisfaction rights, consumer's educations righ ts and also the rights of informing the consumers about the goods and the products (Corones, 2013). Lastly, the suggestion will be regarding intellectual property law in Australia. It can be stated that the rules of the patent are basically to avoid the contradiction between the names and rights of two companies. Australian Trade Mark Law includes certification as well as collective marks. According to section 17 of this act, it can be stated that trade mark is the sign which is used or rather intended to use to distinguish the goods and services that are provided by any other person. In Australia, the registration is for ten years and further is extended to the additional of ten years. In case if there is a failure of registration for three years and there may be cancellation on the grounds for notion. There are various patent examiners in Australia who are generally scientist and engineers but they do not hold the degree but legal training of the patent law. They are hired on the basis of their technical expertise and professional skills. They basically work under the agency of t rademark right and they help indentifying the trademark and patent rights. They are assessed to be competent with the assess applications and helps in making decision about satisfying and qualifying all the legislative provisions. (Carney, 2012). Reference List: Aplin, T.F., Aplin, T. and Davis, J., 2013. Intellectual property law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press. Badenhorst, P., Freedman, W., Pienaar, J. and Van Wyk, J., 2012. The principles of the law of property in South Africa. Oxford University Press Southern Africa. Bently, L. and Sherman, B., 2014. Intellectual property law. Oxford University Press, USA. Bridge, M., 2015. Personal property law. OUP Oxford. Burrows, A. ed., 2013. English private law. OUP Oxford. Carney, T., 2012. Guardianship,social citizenship and theorising substitute decision-making law. In Beyond Elder Law (pp. 1-17). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Corones, S.G., 2013. The Australian Consumer Law. Thomson Reuters, Lawbook Co.. Davis, J., 2012. Intellectual Property Law Core Text. Oxford university press. Davison, M., Monotti, A. and Wiseman, L., 2016. Australian intellectual property law. Cambridge University Press.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Ernest Hemingway Essays (2950 words) - Ernest Hemingway,

Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemmingway Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was the owner of a prosperous real estate business. His father, Dr. Hemingway, imparted to Ernest the importance of appearances, especially in public. Dr. Hemingway invented surgical forceps for which he would not accept money. He believed that one should not profit from something important for the good of mankind. Ernest's father, a man of high ideals, was very strict and censored the books he allowed his children to read. He forbad Ernest's sister from studying ballet for it was coeducational, and dancing together led to hell and damnation. Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest's mother, considered herself pure and proper. She was a dreamer who was upset at anything which disturbed her perception of the world as beautiful. She hated dirty diapers, upset stomachs, and cleaning house; they were not fit for a lady. She taught her children to always act with decorum. She adored the singing of the birds and the smell of flowers. Her children were expected to behave properly and to please her, always. Mrs. Hemingway treated Ernest, when he was a small boy, as if he were a female baby doll and she dressed him accordingly. This arrangement was alright until Ernest got to the age when he wanted to be a gun-toting Pawnee Bill. He began, at that time, to pull away from his mother, and never forgave her for his humiliation. The town of Oak Park, where Ernest grew up, was very old fashioned and quite religious. The townspeople forbad the word virgin from appearing in school books, and the word breast was questioned, though it appeared in the Bible. Ernest loved to fish, canoe and explore the woods. When he couldn't get outside, he escaped to his room and read books. He loved to tell stories to his classmates, often insisting that a friend listen to one of his stories. In spite of his mother's desire, he played on the football team at Oak Park High School. As a student, Ernest was a perfectionist about his grammar and studied English with a fervor. He contributed articles to the weekly school newspaper. It seems that the principal did not approve of Ernest's writings and he complained, often, about the content of Ernest's articles. Ernest was clear about his writing; he wanted people to see and feel and he wanted to enjoy himself while writing. Ernest loved having fun. If nothing was happening, mischievous Ernest made something happen. He would sometimes use forbidden words just to create a ruckus. Ernest, though wild and crazy, was a warm, caring individual. He loved the sea, mountains and the stars and hated anyone who he saw as a phoney. During World War I, Ernest, rejected from service because of a bad left eye, was an ambulance driver, in Italy, for the Red Cross. Very much like the hero of A Farewell to Arms, Ernest is shot in his knee and recuperates in a hospital, tended by a caring nurse named Agnes. Like Frederick Henry, in the book, he fell in love with the nurse and was given a medal for his heroism. Ernest returned home after the war, rejected by the nurse with whom he fell in love. He would party late into the night and invite, to his house, people his parents disapproved of. Ernest's mother rejected him and he felt that he had to move from home. He moved in with a friend living in Chicago and he wrote articles for The Toronto Star. In Chicago he met and then married Hadley Richardson. She believed that he should spend all his time in writing, and bought him a typewriter for his birthday. They decided that the best place for a writer to live was Paris, where he could devote himself to his writing. He said, at the time, that the most difficult thing to write about was being a man. They could not live on income from his stories and so Ernest, again, wrote for The Toronto Star. Ernest took Hadley to Italy to show her where he had been during the war. He was devastated, everything had changed, everything was destroyed. Hadley became

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Do you see sexuality as a biological given or Essay Example

Do you see sexuality as a biological given or Essay Example Do you see sexuality as a biological given or Essay Do you see sexuality as a biological given or Essay Make you see gender as a biological given or as a societal building? Critically reflect upon your place. ( 2220/ 2000 ) Introduction In the 19th century biological accounts for gender became ascendent over the old theological 1s ( Kimmel, 2000: 22 ) . In some respects such accounts match our common sense’ apprehension of human gender, for after all is non sexuality finally the concern of biological science and reproduction? However, it is every bit true that the medical professions have played an of import function in the subjugation of homosexualism ( Marshall, 1983: 165 ) . In the first subdivision I explore the biological account of gender, demoing that such an attack is unequal at explicating human gender and the manner that it changes historically. In the 2nd subdivision I examine the statement that gender is in fact a societal building: that gender is learned behavior. In the decision, I sound a note of cautiousness, reasoning that, following Connell ( 2002 ) , what is needed is a manner of speculating gender, and more specifically gender, which includes both the societal and biological dimensions. Sexuality as a Biological Given In this subdivision I explore biological accounts of gender, particularly within depth psychology. An illustration is found in the work of Marie Bonaparte ( in Thompson, 2003 ) . Marie Bonaparte ( 1882-1962 ) , a member of the ( in ) celebrated Bonaparte household, was a patient of Freud in the 1920s and 1930s. Following her analysis she developed a complex, though non needfully coherent ( Thompson, 2003: 366 ) , theory of female gender. For Freud anatomy is destiny ( in Kimmel, 2000: 21 ) , therefore within Freudian depth psychology a woman’s gender is finally the consequence of her deficiency of Phallus ( see Marshall, 1983 ) . [ 1 ] Following Freud, Bonaparte argued that female gender is a consequence of women’s passiveness and biological sensitivity to trouble: †¦woman is biologically doomed to endure [ †¦ ] and she can make nil but submit passively to the government prescribed’ ( Bonaparte in Thompson, 2003: 357 ) . Further, Bonaparte argued that t he manner in which a woman’s anatomy is ordered determines her titillating life: that the intimacy of the button and vagina reflect the androgyny inherent in every woman’ ( Thompson, 2003: 357 ) . For Bonaparte, if a adult female becomes fixated on her button, experience’s clitoric climaxs, she demonstrates her inadaptation to function’ ( Bonaparte in Thompson, 2003: 364 ) , and finally becomes a renouncer’ who abandons hope of happening love ( Thompson, 2003: 35 ) . If she remains fixated on both her button and her vagina, she becomes a claimer’ , and therefore denies world and is caught in a struggle between her sadistic ( male ) and inactive ( female ) gender ( Ibid. p. 364 ) . If she is alternatively fixated on her vagina, she becomes an acceptive’ or a true woman’ as she no longer wants for a phallus, but alternatively wants for a kid ( Ibid. p. 359 ) . A normal’ gender is therefore the consequence of lone vaginal c limax and a desire for kids. For Bonaparte, any account of human gender has as its base the biological reality’ . Such an attack to human gender is non confined to historical beginnings, a speedy study of modern-day psychological science reveals a similar procedure: for illustration a recent article on human gender argues that four differences are apparent between male and female gender: that work forces show more involvement in sex ( Peplau, 2003: 37 ) ; that adult females emphasize committed dealingss as the proper context for sex, whereas work forces are more permissive towards insouciant sex ( Ibid. pp. 37-8 ) ; that aggression plays a larger function in male gender ( Peplau, 2003: 38 ) ; and eventually, that women’s gender is more easy altered by cultural and situational factors ( Ibid. ) . Although this study was based on the respondents ain perceptual experiences, this did non forestall the writer from reasoning that an adequate understanding [ of gender ] may necessitate separate analyses o f gender in adult females and work forces, based on the uniquebiological scienceand life experiences of each sex’ ( Ibid. p. 39, accent added ) . Early on societal scientists relied to a great extent on the usage of science’ to legalize their subjects, and so besides relied on biological accounts ( Kimmel, 2000: 23 ) . However, Emily Martin ( 1991 ) demonstrates that the facts’ of biological science have non merely been interpreted though a cultural lens, these facts have beenmade to suitwith culturally dominant ideals of male and female gender: the egg is perceived to be inactive, the sperm active ( Martin, 1991: 489 ) ; [ 2 ] social imagery’ is mapped onto the gametes, giving them male and female personalities, so as to put a steadfast footing for reimporting precisely that same imagination asnatural accounts of societal phenomena’ ( Ibid. p. 500, accent added ) . Further, if we except such accounts how can we so explain they manner in which gender has changed historically? Relatively recent developments in human gender, such as the development of homosexualism as a signifier of individuality ( Ma rshall, 1983: 167 ) can non be explained by biological science. Finally, whilst our perceptual experience of the sexes is dichotomous, the world of biological science is non: there may really be every bit many as five sexes, including the inter-sexed ( Connell, 2002: 29 ; 36 ) . Such a disparity has led many to see alternatively the societal beginning of both gender and gender. Sexuality as a Social Construction In this subdivision I examine the work of Salvatore Cucchiari ( 1981 ) , who argued that gender must alternatively be seen as a societal building ; that instead than being the consequence of biological science, human gender must be regarded as portion of the societal building of gender’ . Early efforts to explicate gender as a societal building were to be found in sex-role theory, where gender is learned during the procedure of socialisation ( Charles, 2003: 2 ) . Aberrance from normal’ gender, such as homosexualism, would therefore be a consequence of a failure’ in socialisation ( Connell, 1987: 49 in Charles, 2003: 2 ) . By the 1970s, the impact of second-wave feminism had led many theoreticians to situate a differentiation between sex’ and gender’ ( Connell, 2002: 33 ) . Cucchiari ( 1981 ) , pulling on this development, conducted an interesting thought experiment’ in which he attempts to logically infer the development of gender and gender in pre-history. In a complex and disputing article his attack may be divided into cardinal phases: foremost he postulates a crude society without gender dealingss ; next, he imagines how such a society would run: who would look after the kids, who would run etc ; 3rd, he outlines the manner that gender would subsequently develop in such a society. Cucchiari imagines a pre-gender universe which is functionally divided into those who look after the kids ( Child Tenders ) and those who look for nutrient ( Foragers ) ( Cucchiari, 1981: 41 ) . Membership of these groups is unstable, non ascribed, alterations over clip and is democratic and Unitarian ( Ibid. p. 42-50 ) : therefore he imagines aspacial, instead than a sexual, division. In this imagined pre-gender society, gender is both bisexual and unrestrained’ and physical differences between the sexes are unimportant ( Ibid. p.45 ) . Subsequently, as portion of the demand to develop ties with other bisexual hosts, groups begin to interchange kids ( Cucchiari, 1981: 50 ) . Later a crisis develops between the unitarian political orientation [ †¦ ] and the biological dissymmetry or exclusivity of proto-women’s ability to hold and suckle children’ ( Ibid. ) . This is ab initio resolved by consecrating adult females, taking to the hypostatization of the physi cal characteristics associated with reproduction – the chest and genitalias – but finally, as this entails a negative definition of proto-man, [ 3 ] the two functions become reciprocally sole and adult females are no longer worshipped ( Ibid. p. 51 ) . Alternatively, the adult females entirely look after the kids, while the work forces Hunt and competition within gender-related activities – and all activities are now circumscribed by the gender duality – tends to reenforce and lucubrate the very significances of maleness and femininity’ ( Ibid. p. 57 ) : the gender revolution has occurred. Following this gender revolution is thesexualrevolution ; as a consequence of the competition between members of the same sex, work forces as huntsmans and adult females as kid carriers, sexual attraction assumes a new importance ( Ibid. pp. 56-48 ) , and the sex that produces kids,heterosexual sex, becomes more extremely valued and finally requires societal cont rol, or countenances ( Ibid. p. 58 ) . Finally, the exchange of kids easy develops into the exchange of adult females and therefore represents the exercising of laterality by some grownup members of the community over other grownups [ †¦ ] repairing the position of adult females as objects’ ( Ibid. p. 62 ) . Cucchiari’s attack is debatable ; foremost, it is to a great extent reliant on Freudian depth psychology ( Ibid. pp. 46-48 ) , which I discredited earlier for its covert trust on biological science: he posits the development of gender hierarchy as the consequence of asocietaloedipal crisis. However, Cucchiari argues that Freud’s theory allows the possibility that humanity ( past and hereafter ) need non take between the dictatorship of venereal primacy or the lawlessness of childish bisexuality’ , but alternatively take an intermediate sexual form’ : a non-repressive gender ( Cucchiari, 1981: 48 ) . Second, despite his averments that this is a mere thought experiment, he does try to back up his statement with mention to the archeological record ( Ibid. pp. 63-69 ) , so he argues that this procedure occurred in the Upper Palaeolithic period ( 35,000 B.C. to 12,000 B.C ) and is supported by the archeological stuff: The form of symbolic look of gender constructs during this era closely follows that in the theoretical account: an initial phase characterized by a chiseled, extremely specified feminine construct and correspondingly weak masculine representation: a in-between period of amplification in which both gender marks are related to each other in different contexts and mapped onto other sorts of marks: and eventually, toward the terminal of the Upper Palaeolithic, a clear, in writing representation of the Phallus but attendant weak and abstract rendition of female marks ( Ibid. p. 63 ) . This writer is non adequately experienced to judge the cogency of his statement here ; nevertheless, his thought experiment does let us to conceive of a gender-free universe, to see that gender and gender are socially constructed, and so conceive of that sexual and gender equality is possible in the hereafter. Decision In decision, we can see that biological accounts, including those of depth psychology, do non adequately account for human gender. Not merely does gender form our sexual relationships ( Connell, 2002: 143 ) , gender is a portion of the procedure in which gender is socially constructed, so, gender lies at the bosom of any gender system’ ( Cucchiari, 1981: 37 ) . Simone de Beauvior stated that One is non born, but instead becomes, a woman’ ( in Connell, 2002: 4 ) , it might be better to state that one is non born heterosexual/ homosexual/ bisexual, but instead becomes so ; gender is a affair of societal building, non of biological science, and is constructed as portion of the procedure of gender building: Human gender is fictile, non capable to stiff familial or hormonal patterning, but determined by the acquisition and symbolic countries of the brain’ ( Cucchiari, 1981: 38 ) . However, a concluding note of cautiousness is needed: gender is a societal building, but this does non intend that it is free from all the restraints imposed by biological science ; one is non wholly free to build one’s gender any more than one is free to build one’s ain gender. The societal building of both gender and gender is limited by and affects the human organic structure: Bodies can non be understood as merely the objects of societal procedure, whether symbolic or disciplinary. They are active participants in societal process’ ( Connell, 2002: 39-40 ) . The sociology of gender used to be chiefly concerned with the survey of aberrance ( Gamson and Moon, 2004: 47 ) , but queer theory’ is now in danger of situating genders as divorced from the organic structures that pattern them, and therefore sabotaging the part it can do to the wider survey of society. Bibliography Charles, Nickie ( 2003 ) Theorizing Gender’ ,Gender in Modern Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-19. Connell, R.W. ( 2002 )Gender, Cambridge: Polity Press. Cucchiari, Salvatore ( 1981 ) The Gender Revolution and the Passage from Bisexual Horde to Partrilocal Band: The Origins of Gender Hierarchy’ ,Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and SexualitY, Ortner, S and Whitehead, H ( Eds. ) , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 31-79. Gamson, Joshua and Moon, Dawne ( 2004 ) The Sociology of Sexualities: Fagot and Beyond’ ,Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 30, pp. 47-64. Kimmel, Michael S. ( 2000 ) Ordained by Nature: Biology Constructs the Sexes’ ,The Gendered Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 21-46. Martin, Emily The Egg and the Sperm: How Science has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotyped Male-Female Roles’ ,Signs, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 485-501. Marshall, John ( 1983 ) The Medical Profession’ ,Prejudice and Pride: Discrimination against Gay People in Modern Britain, London: Routledge, pp. 165-193. Peplau, Letitia ( 2003 ) Human Sex: How do Men and Women Differ? ’ ,Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 37-40. Thompson, Nellie L. ( 2003 ) Marie Bonaparte s Theory of Female Sexuality: Fantasy and Biology’ ,American Imago, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 343-378. 1

Friday, February 21, 2020

What do you think the likelihood of success will be for President Essay

What do you think the likelihood of success will be for President Obama to implement the remaining items of his agenda - Essay Example Congress members from both fronts of the political divide all have an input in what is to be implemented and what is not. They exercise their power through voting for or against any policy. For any of these items to be implemented, a majority of the Senate members must vote for the item through persuasion and lobbying. The likelihood of President Obama to implement the items of his agenda that are yet to be done is high. The fulfillment of items in his agenda led to the recent up-surge in his approval ratings. President Reagan is an excellent example of a president who was able to push his agenda forward despite all odds. His changes especially in the budget and tax reforms cannot go unnoticed.2 Reagan was successful in his bid to implement his agenda because he possessed the self discipline and clarity required to control the agenda. His strategy was to take on an issue a time rather than to have a full plate that neither he nor congress could handle at a time. President Jimmy Carter, on the other hand, was relatively unsuccessful. This was because the challenge of being president was simply overwhelming. He did not prioritize his agenda laying emphasis on the most urgent ones and lacked enthusiasm. He instead took on everything at a go, and this portrayed him as a man who had no concrete plan for the nation. His style of handling business did not impress Congress